Many wetlands are found nearby, including Honey Island Swamp and Barataria Preserve. [215], Following Hurricane Katrina, the state of Louisiana took over most of the schools within the system (all schools that matched a nominal "worst-performing" metric). Wood's pump system allowed the city to drain huge tracts of swamp and marshland and expand into low-lying areas. [196] Over time, pumping of water from marshland allowed for development into lower elevation areas. By the 1980s and 1990s, scientists observed that extensive, rapid, and ongoing erosion of the marshlands and swamp surrounding New Orleans, especially that related to the Mississippi River–Gulf Outlet Canal, had the unintended result of leaving the city more vulnerable than before to hurricane-induced catastrophic storm surges. [108][109] A report by the American Society of Civil Engineers says that "had the levees and floodwalls not failed and had the pump stations operated, nearly two-thirds of the deaths would not have occurred".[91]. An estimated 1 million people evacuated from Greater New Orleans and nearby areas before the storm. The most recent estimates of the damage from the storm, by several insurance companies, are $10 to 25 billion,[needs update][40] while the total economic loss from the disaster has been estimated at $100 billion. [53] In 1860, the city had 13,000 free people of color (gens de couleur libres), the class of free, mostly mixed-race people that expanded in number during French and Spanish rule. The climate of New Orleans is humid subtropical (Köppen: Cfa), with short, generally mild winters and hot, humid summers; most suburbs and parts of Wards 9 and 15 fall in USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 9a, while the city's other 15 wards are rated 9b in whole. In 2015, 18.8% of New Orleans households were without a car, which increased to 20.2% in 2016. Examples include Intermarine, Bisso Towboat, Northrop Grumman Ship Systems, Trinity Yachts, Expeditors International, Bollinger Shipyards, IMTT, International Coffee Corp, Boasso America, Transoceanic Shipping, Transportation Consultants Inc., Dupuy Storage & Forwarding and Silocaf. The center city possesses a rapidly growing, entrepreneurial creative industries sector and is renowned for its cultural tourism. The 1970 census recorded the first absolute decline in population since the city became part of the United States in 1803. While New Orleans has experienced numerous floods large and small in its history, the flood of 1849 was of a more disastrous scale than any save the flooding after Hurricane Katrina in 2005. With the resumption of daily print editions from the Times-Picayune and the launch of the New Orleans edition of The Advocate, now The New Orleans Advocate, the city had two daily newspapers for the first time since the afternoon States-Item ceased publication on May 31, 1980. [163] Several energy companies have regional headquarters in the area, including Royal Dutch Shell, Eni and Chevron. [101] According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, New Orleans is the nation's most vulnerable city to hurricanes. This group brought with them a long memorial to summarize the abuses the colony had endured from the Spanish. The New Orleans Saints returned that season. In June 2013, the Times-Picayune resumed daily printing with a condensed newsstand tabloid edition, nicknamed TP Street, which is published on the three days each week that its namesake broadsheet edition is not printed (the Picayune has not returned to daily delivery). 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