The Lake Victoria basin, while generally rural, has many major centres of population. [42], The Victoria haplochromines are distinctly sexually dimorphic (males relatively brightly colored; females dull),[45] and their ecology is extremely diverse, falling into at least 16 groups, including detritivores, zooplanktivores, insectivores, prawn-eaters, molluscivores and piscivores. [21][36][40] Their extraordinary diversity and speed of evolution have been the subjects for many scientists studying the forces that drive the richness of life everywhere. It feeds primarily on female mosquitos. Hundreds of endemic species that evolved under the special conditions offered by the protection of Lake Victoria have been lost due to extinction, and several more are still threatened. [20] During its geological history, Lake Victoria went through changes ranging from its present shallow depression, through to what may have been a series of much smaller lakes. In the late 1860s, the famous Scottish explorer and missionary David Livingstone failed in his attempt to verify Speke's discovery, instead pushing too far west and entering the River Congo system instead. The first recorded information about Lake Victoria comes from Arab traders plying the inland routes in search of gold, ivory, other precious commodities, and slaves. [65], Four species of freshwater crabs are known from Lake Victoria: Potamonautes niloticus is widespread in the lake and P. emini has been recorded from the vicinity of Bukoba in Tanzania, but both are also found elsewhere in Africa. tvlu5044 07.12.2018 History Secondary School +5 pts. Uganda Access points to Lake Victoria from Uganda include Kampala, Jinja & Entebbe. Freshwater biodiversity in the Lake Victoria Basin: Guidance for species conservation, site protection. [35] Among the introductions are several tilapias: redbreast (Coptodon rendalli), redbelly (C. zillii), Nile (Oreochromis niloticus) and blue-spotted tilapias (O. Updates? world's longest river. Heavy winds and rains along with their subsequent waves may have also damaged the plants during this same time frame. Book Lake Victoria Country Home, Entebbe on Tripadvisor: See traveler reviews, 5 candid photos, and great deals for Lake Victoria Country Home at Tripadvisor. Nevertheless, others of these features are not consistent within the lakes and have not been adequately explained.…. Lake Victoria covers an area of 26,828 square miles and reaches a depth of 270 feet which makes it the largest lake in Africa. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Additionally, the water quality, nutrient supply, temperature, and other environmental factors could have played a role. Uganda has 45 percent of Lake Victoria, while Kenya earns only 6 percent. The lake’s shores vary in aspect. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Its shores are dotted with key cities and towns, including Kisumu, Kisii, and Homa Bay in Kenya; Kampala, Jinja and Entebbe in Uganda; and Bukoba, Mwanza, and Musoma in Tanzania. It is a trans-boundary water resource shared by Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The outflow from Lake Victoria into the NILE is in the country of UGANDA. In addition, it's the largest tropical lake in the world, and the planet's second largest freshwater lake. At 51 percent, Tanzania claims the biggest share of the lake’s waters, followed by Uganda at 43 percent, and Kenya at 6 percent. Lake Victoria covers an approximate 68,800 km squared. In his official report of the expedition, Graham wrote that "The ngege or satu Tilapia esculenta, is the most important food fish of the lake, whether for native or non-native consumption. 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T15457A4587658.en, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T15458A4587788.en, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T44523A84352263.en, "Description of three new species of Potamonautes MacLeay, 1838 from the Lake Victoria region in southern Uganda, East Africa (Brachyura: Potamoidea: Potamonautidae)", "The diversity of benthic molluscs of Lake Victoria and Lake Burigi", "The snails spreading fever across Africa", "Haplochromine Cichlids of Lake Victoria", "Lake Victoria Fisheries: An introduction", "Exotic introductions to the fishery of Lake Victoria: What are the management options? Lake Victoria or Victoria Nyanza (also known as Ukerewe and Nalubaale) is one of the Great Lakes of Africa.. Lake Victoria is 68,800 square kilometres (26,560 mi²) in size, making it the continent's largest lake, the largest tropical lake in the world, and the second largest fresh water lake in the world in terms of surface area. Njoka. "Freshwater Crabs and Shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) of the Nile Basin". The main ports on the lake are Kisumu, Mwanza, Bukoba, Entebbe, Port Bell, and Jinja. [18][61] By itself, this vegetative matter decays slowly. In the Kenyan port… Burton, who had been recovering from illness at the time and resting further south on the shores of Lake Tanganyika, was outraged that Speke claimed to have proved his discovery to have been the true source of the Nile River, which Burton regarded as still unsettled. The Kagera River, which flows into Lake Victoria near the Tanzanian town of Bukoba, is the longest feeder river for Lake Victoria, although sources do not agree on which is the longest tributary of the Kagera, and hence the most distant source of the Nile itself.. [15] Its catchment area covers 169,858 km2 (65,583 sq mi). [41][48] Several of the remaining species are seriously threatened and additional extinctions are possible. Lake Victoria or Victoria Nyanza (also known as Ukerewe and Nnalubaale) is a lake in Africa.It is bordered and governed by the countries of Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya.The lake is in the western part of Africa's Great Rift Valley.. Lake Victoria is 68,800 square kilometres (26,560 mi²) in size. Lake Victoria covers land in all of the following countries EXCEPT Get the answers you need, now! Located on the western frontier of Kenya, the lake is only a one-hour flight from Nairobi to Kisumu and a 40-minute flight from Maasai Mara, making it a convenient option for your safari plans with AfricanMecca. Kenya has 6% of the lake, Uganda has 45% and Tanzania has the largest share with 49%. Source of world's longest river … [86] Greater growth was observed in the northern part of the lake, in relatively protected areas, which may be linked to current and weather patterns and could also be due to the climate and water conditions, which are more suitable to the plants growth (as there are large urban areas to the north end of the lake, in Uganda). [81] UGFD officials argued that Nile perch must have spread to Lake Victoria by themselves by passing through the Owen Falls Dam when shut down for maintenance, but this is considered highly unlikely by many scientists. ... Countries. The shoreline consists of numerous sheltered bays surrounded by papyrus swamps, gulfs and forests at some places. [38] Initially it was feared that this number was even higher, by some estimates 65 percent of the total species,[47] but several species that were feared extinct have been rediscovered after the Nile perch started to decline in the 1990s. Lake Victoria is a huge lake in Eastern Africa - it's so big that it stretches over parts of three different countries. People rely on it for food, water, and many other things. Human infections by this parasite are common at Lake Victoria. Log in. With a surface area of 68,800 sq km (26,600 sq mi), Lake Victoria is Africa's largest lake. The increasing amounts of algae, in turn, increase the amount of detritus (dead plant material) that falls to the deeper portions of the lake before decomposing. Source of. The changes in oxygenation are considered consistent with measurements of higher algal biomass and productivity. In addition to the biogas it produces, its by-product can be used as fertilizer. Chapter 27, pp. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Fiedler, P.L. The shoreline of this Lake occupies an area of about 7142km and islands occupy over 3.7% of the shoreline length. Lake Victoria (Luo: Nam Lolwe; Luganda: 'Nnalubaale; also Ukerewe)[6][7] is one of the African Great Lakes. See health & safety details. Uganda has 45 percent of Lake Victoria, while Kenya earns only 6 percent. About Lake Victoria Basin Commission: The East African Community established the Lake Victoria Basin Commission formerly known as the Lake Victoria Development Programme in 2001, as a mechanism for coordinating the various interventions on the Lake and its Basin; and serving as a centre for promotion of investments and information sharing among the various stakeholders. At the same time, the plant's mat or "web" creates a barrier for boats and ferries to maneuver, impedes access to the shoreline, interferes with hydroelectric power generation, and blocks the intake of water for industries. Lake Victoria covers an approximate 68,800 km squared. Lake Victoria (Luo: Nam Lolwe; Luganda: 'Nnalubaale; also Ukerewe) is one of the African Great Lakes. Lake Victoria, shared by Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, was named after the Queen of England and is the world's largest tropical lake and the second largest freshwater lake. [29], Many mammal species live in the region of Lake Victoria, and some of these are closely associated with the lake itself and the nearby wetlands. Travelling between these countries via the lake is, sadly, a luxury of the past. 1. Located in Entebbe and with Victoria Mall Entebbe reachable within 2.5 miles, Lake Victoria Country Home has express check-in and check-out, non-smoking rooms, a garden, free WiFi and a bar. Nevertheless, the natives continued to dominate fisheries until the 1970s where their decline meant that there was a strong shift towards the non-native Nile tilapia (now 7 percent of catches), non-native Nile perch (60 percent) and the native Lake Victoria sardine (30 percent). The lake rests between three countries namely, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. The food chain is being altered and in some cases, broken by the indiscriminate eating habits of the Nile perch. 1999. The set up of small beaches and local authorities around the lake lack proper sewage treatment facilities allowing pollutants to find their way into the water. [84][85] This invasive weed creates anoxic (total depletion of oxygen levels) conditions in the lake inhibiting decomposing plant material, raising toxicity and disease levels to both fish and people. [76], Lake Victoria supports Africa's largest inland fishery (as of 1997). Answered Lake Victoria covers land in all of the following countries EXCEPT 1 With an area of 69,484 km², it is about as big as Ireland. Njoka. life for the people living within the Lake Victoria Basin which is in line with the Bank’s focus areas (Hi5s). In 1966, train ferry services between Kenya and Tanzania were established with the introduction of MV Uhuru and MV Umoja. pp. That’s more species than in any other lake on Earth, save Lake Malawi.. [70][71] There are 17 species of bivalves (Corbicula, Coelatura, Sphaerium, and Byssanodonta), including 6 endemic species/subspecies. [8][9] This expedition was financially sponsored by the Royal Geographic Society. The ferry MV Bukoba sank in the lake on 21 May 1996 with a loss of between 800 and 1,000 lives, making it one of Africa's worst maritime disasters. Lake Victoria is shared among three countries in Africa. [23] Lake Victoria receives its water additionally from rivers, and thousands of small streams. What is Rhodesia called today? Pollution of Lake Victoria is mainly due to discharge of raw sewage into the lake, dumping of domestic and industrial waste, and fertiliser and chemicals from farms. There are islands with amazing wildlife on the lake, beautiful landscapes around the lake and there are numerous accommodations where you stay and enjoy the scenery and cool breeze from the fresh water lake. [35][41][79], As early as the 1920s, it was proposed to introduce a large pelagic predator such as the Nile perch to improve the fisheries in the lake. It borders the countries of Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. [21][36], Most of these lakes are relatively shallow (like Victoria) and part of the present-day upper Nile basin. (2008). Few fisheries, though, have been able to make the switch to catching the Nile perch, since that requires a significant amount of capital resources.[83]. Where is Serengeti National Park? Although it is a part of the same river system known as the White Nile and is occasionally referred to as such, strictly speaking this name does not apply until after the river crosses the Uganda border into South Sudan to the north. Found on the western side of Africa's Great Rift Valley, Lake Victoria borders the countries of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. Geologically, Lake Victoria is relatively young at about 400,000 years old. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/place/Lake-Victoria, University of Texas, Dallas - Lake Victoria, UN-Water Activity Information System - Lake Victoria, Victoria, Lake - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Lake Victoria - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). It is densely populated. A detailed survey of the lake was made by Sir William Garstin in 1901. [68], The only shrimp/prawn is Caridina nilotica,[69] which is common and widespread in Lake Victoria. The exception is Lake Kivu, which is part of the present-day Congo River basin, but is believed to have been connected to Lakes Edward and Victoria by rivers until the uplifting of parts of the East African Rift. [18] Geological cores taken from its bottom show Lake Victoria has dried up completely at least three times since it formed. Learn more about the cichlids of Lake Victoria. The lake’s only outlet is the Victoria Nile, which exits from the northern coast. With a surface area of 69,485 square kilometers, Lake Victoria is Africa’s largest lake, and the world’s largest tropical lake, according to Diversity Inland Waters (DIW). (1929.) [89] The invasive weed was first attempted to be controlled by hand, removed manually from the lake; however, re-growth occurred quickly. The Ugandan cities of Kampala and Entebbe lie along or near the northern coast. The three countries bordering Lake Victoria – Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania – have agreed in principle to the idea of a tax on Nile perch exports, proceeds to be applied to various measures to benefit local communities and sustain the fishery. But European settlers brought with them a hunger for bigger fish, and soon introduced some invasive species.The effects were incredibly disruptive for the ecosystem. The lake is located close to the equator on the eastern side of Africa, with most of the lake … Its greatest length from north to south is 210 miles (337 km), its greatest breadth 150 miles (240 km). Many archipelagos are contained within the lake, as are numerous reefs, often just below the surface of the clear waters. Interesting Facts about Lake Victoria 6: the division of Lake Victoria. For a relaxing, pleasurable lake vacation in East Africa, we recommend a visit to Lake Victoria, the largest of the Great African Lakes and the second largest freshwater lake in the world. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Ugandan volunteers passing out life jackets in an effort to decrease the number of drownings in Lake Victoria. [75], Evarcha culicivora is a species of jumping spider (family Salticidae) found only around Lake Victoria in Kenya and Uganda. Lake Victoria info - Gondwana Safari Tour Operators - Safari Holiday Packages, Lodges, Camps +267 686 1971. With a surface area of approximately 59,947 km2 (23,146 sq mi),[10][11] Lake Victoria is Africa's largest lake by area, the world's largest tropical lake,[12] and the world's second-largest fresh water lake by surface area after Lake Superior in North America. [97] Increased logging and act of deforestation has led to environmental degradation around the region reducing the absorption of polluting chemicals and deteriorating the water quality.[98]. ... Countries. Found on the western side of Africa's Great Rift Valley, Lake Victoria borders the countries of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. The Kagera River, the largest and most important of the lake affluents, enters the western side of Lake Victoria just north of latitude 1° S. The only other river of note entering from the west is the Katonga, north of Kagera. Now let's learn about Africa's other 8 largest lakes in Africa. Lake Victoria, the second largest lake in the world and one of the sources of the Nile River, is one of the most important trans-boundary natural resource in Africa. Because of this, most of Lake Victoria's nutrients are thought to be locked up in lake-bottom deposits. The vegetated shores of Lake Victoria near the Speke Resort in Munyonyo, Kampala, Uganda. Uganda General Information Map of Uganda Kampala Kibale National Park Queen Elizabeth National Park Murchison Falls National Park Bwindi Impenetrable National Park. At the lake’s northwestern corner are the 62 islands of the Sese archipelago, some of them of striking beauty. After Lake Superior in the United States, Lake Victoria is also the second largest freshwater lake in the world by surface area. ", 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T60318A47182908.en. The lake was named after Queen Victoria by the explorer John Hanning Speke, in his reports—the first Briton to document it. The influent rivers of Lake Victoria provide few nutrients to the lake in relation to its size. Animal flesh decays considerably faster, however, so the fertility of the lake is dependent on the rate at which these nutrients can be taken up by fish and other organisms. Africa's largest lake is Lake Victoria. Lake Victoria was once home to over 500 species of fish. [60] Survey catches in 1927-28 included several Haplochromis species that are now thought to be extinct, including: Haplochromis flavipinnis, Haplochromis gowersii, Haplochromis longirostris, Haplochromis macrognathus, Haplochromis michaeli, Haplochromis nigrescens, Haplochromis prognathus. People rely on it for food, water, and many other things. Lake Victoria covers more than 68,800 square km and is the lifeblood for the people of Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda who rely on its waters to service its huge fishing industry. Study shows evolution does not always mean more diversification. [39] These are the result of a rapid adaptive radiation in the last circa 15,000 years. The lake existed and was known to many Africans in the catchment area long before it was sighted by a European in 1858 when the British explorer John Hanning Speke reached its southern shore while on his journey with Richard Francis Burton to explore central Africa and locate the Great Lakes. Km. Lake Victoria is located in east central Africa along the equator. The project is in line with the Protocol for Sustainable Development of Lake Victoria Basin; Lake Victoria Basin Commission (LVBC) Strategic Plan 2011 – 2016; the participating countries CSPs; and the Bank’s RISP for East Africa. Formerly known to the Arabs as Ukerewe, the lake was named by Speke in honour of Queen Victoria of England. Lake Victoria has more than 200 species of fish, of which the Tilapia is the most economically important. Jäger, J., Bohunovsky, L., Radosh, L., & Sustainability Project. [89][91][92][93] A green power plant that uses harvested water hyacinth (but also can use other degradable waste) was constructed in Kisumu County in 2013. According to a CNN report, a mixture of lethal weather, poor communication and lack of resources are the three biggest cause of the high fatalities per square kilometre at the freshwater lake.. [37][41] The zooplanktivores have been least affected and in the late 1990s had reached densities similar to, or above, the densities before the drastic declines, although consisting of fewer species and often switching their diet towards macroinvertebrates. Below you can see the member countries. And that is why we are interested in how much is being abstracted by those countries” Tindimugaya explained. The search by Europeans for the source of the Nile led to the sighting of the lake by the British explorer John Hanning Speke in 1858. Kateregga, E., & Sterner, T. (January 01, 2009). In 1990–1991, oxygen concentrations in the mixed layer were higher than in 1960–1961, with nearly continuous oxygen supersaturation in surface waters. The fertility of tropical waters depends on the rate at which nutrients can be brought into solution. [81] The Nile perch had spread throughout the lake by 1970. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the lake and its surrounding areas were threatened by the consequences of overfishing as well as by ecological damage from pollution and invasive species such as the Nile perch and water hyacinth. 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